Translation of Panchatantra in English

Panchatantra Translation

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Panchatantra in English
Panchatantra pancatantra (Sanskrit) [from pancha five + tantra book] A collection in five books of philosophical and moral instruction often given in the form of dialogs between birds and beasts as well as humans. It was compiled by Vishnusarman about the end of the 5th century and is the original of the better-known Hitopadesa. The source of many familiar stories and doubtless the remote ancestor of Aesop's Fables. It was translated into Pahlavi by order of Naushirvan in the 6th century; in the 9th century it appeared in Arabic as Kalila o Damna; it was translated into Hebrew, Syriac, Turkish, and Greek. From these, versions were made into all the languages of Europe, and it became familiar in England as Pilpay's Fables (Fables of Bidpai).


Dictionary source: Rakefet
More: English to English translation of Panchatantra
The Panchatantra (IAST: Pañcatantra, , 'Five Principles or Techniques') is an ancient Indian inter-related collection of animal fables in verse and prose, in a frame story format. The original Sanskrit work, which some scholars believe was composed in the 3rd century BCE, is attributed to Vishnu Sharma. It is based on older oral traditions, including "animal fables that are as old as we are able to imagine". It is "certainly the most frequently translated literary product of India", and these stories are among the most widely known in the world. To quote :
Thus it goes by many names in many cultures. In India, it had at least 25 recensions, including the Sanskrit Tantrakhyayika and inspired the Hitopadesha. It was translated into Middle Persian in 570 CE by Borzuya. This became the basis for a Syriac translation as Kalilag and Damnag and a translation into Arabic in 750 CE by Persian scholar Abdullah Ibn al-Muqaffa as Kalilah wa Dimnah . A New Persian version from the 12th century became known as Kalileh o Demneh and this was the basis of Kashefi's 15th century Anvar-e Soheyli (, 'The Lights of Canopus'). The book in different form is also known as The Fables of Bidpai (or Pilpai, in various European languages) or The Morall Philosophie of Doni (English, 1570).

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